Paranormal research – Dagulfs Ghost http://dagulfsghost.com/ Fri, 20 May 2022 04:45:02 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9 https://dagulfsghost.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/icon-2-150x150.png Paranormal research – Dagulfs Ghost http://dagulfsghost.com/ 32 32 Why Some Scientists Want Serious UFO Research https://dagulfsghost.com/why-some-scientists-want-serious-ufo-research/ Thu, 19 May 2022 20:38:06 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/why-some-scientists-want-serious-ufo-research/ The U.S. defense and intelligence communities take unidentified flying objects, officially known as Unidentified Aerial Phenomena, seriously. And some researchers think the scientific community should too. On May 17, the US Congress held its first public hearing on these objects in decades (SN: 06/26/71). Two Pentagon officials described efforts to catalog and analyze sightings, many […]]]>

The U.S. defense and intelligence communities take unidentified flying objects, officially known as Unidentified Aerial Phenomena, seriously. And some researchers think the scientific community should too.

On May 17, the US Congress held its first public hearing on these objects in decades (SN: 06/26/71). Two Pentagon officials described efforts to catalog and analyze sightings, many by military personnel such as pilots, of unexplained phenomena because of their potential threat to national security.

Scott Bray, the deputy director of naval intelligence, shared new details about an image and video database that now includes approximately 400 reports of sightings of unidentified phenomena from 2004 to 2021. While officials were able to attribute some of the sightings to artifacts from certain sensors or other mundane explanations, there were others that officials “cannot explain,” Bray said.

Bray stressed that nothing in the database or studied by a task force set up to investigate the sightings “would suggest it was anything of non-terrestrial origin.”

Both Bray and Ronald Moultrie, the undersecretary of defense for intelligence and security, identified “insufficient data” as a barrier to understanding what unidentified phenomena are. “That’s one of the challenges we have,” Moultrie said.

That’s something other scientists can help with, say astrobiologists Jacob Haqq Misra and Ravi Kopparapu.

Scientific news spoke with Haqq Misra, of the Blue Marble Space Institute of Science in Seattle, and Kopparapu, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., to learn more about how and why. Their responses have been edited for brevity and clarity.

What are Unidentified Aerial Phenomena?

Haqq Misra: “What are they” is the billion dollar question. We don’t know what they are, and that’s what makes them interesting.

Unidentified Aerial Phenomena, or UAP, is the term the military uses. It’s a bit different from the term UFO in that a phenomenon could be something that isn’t necessarily a solid physical object. So UAP is perhaps a more global term.

Should we study them scientifically? Why?

Koparapu: Yes. We are constantly conducting scientific studies on unknown phenomena. It shouldn’t be any different. The most critical point to remember is that when conducting these studies, we must not let our speculations dictate the conclusions. The data collected should do that.

Haqq Misra: As scientists, what we should be doing is studying things that we don’t understand.

With UAP, there seem to be anomalous observations that are difficult to explain. Maybe they’re a sign of something like new physics, or maybe they’re just instrumental artifacts we don’t understand or things birds do.

It could be anything, but any of these possibilities, from the most extreme to the most mundane, would tell us something.

So there is scientific curiosity. And it’s also a matter of safety for the pilots, especially if there’s something in the sky that the pilots see that they consider a risk to flight safety.

How to study these phenomena?

Haqq Misra: The problem with the UAP study so far is that all the data is held by the government. From the hearing, there appears to be a plan to declassify some data, once it’s been vetted for possible security risks, but I’m not holding my breath for that to happen soon. It was nice to hear, though.

The reality is that if you want to understand a particular set of data, you have to know something about the instrument that collected the data. Military instruments are probably classified for a reason, for our safety. I don’t think we’re going to get the kind of data from the government that we need to scientifically answer the question. Even if you had this data, from government or commercial pilots or otherwise, it was not intentionally collected. These are incidental and sporadic observations.

So you would need to set up a network of detectors all over the world. Ideally you would have sensors on the ground and you would have satellite coverage. It’s not enough for someone to see something. You need to measure a detection with multiple sensors and multiple wavelengths.

Koparapu: Some of them are transient events. We need, for example, fast-tracking cameras and optical, infrared and radar observations to collect more data to find patterns in event behaviors.

And we need to share that data with scientists so that independent groups can come to a consensus. This is how science progresses. There are academic initiatives in this direction, so it’s a good sign.

What are the possible next steps for the scientific community to study them?

Haqq Misra: There are groups trying to build detectors now. Fundraising is the hardest part. [The nonprofit] UAPx is one of them, and the Galileo project [at Harvard University] is another.

And it was pointed out in the hearing, but the stigma was a big issue. It seems the military is trying not only to streamline the reporting process, but also to de-stigmatize it. It’s important for science too. If it starts to change more in the culture, it would go a long way.

Koparapu: I think the scientific study of UAP should not be stigmatized. There should be open discussions, comments and constructive criticism that can help deepen the study of the NAP.

There should be discussions on how and what types of instruments are needed to collect data. Emphasis should be placed on collecting and sharing data and so commenting on the subject.

How did you become interested in this subject?

Koparapu: Over the past few years, I have read several articles rejecting or advocating a particular explanation regarding UAP. Then I started digging into it, and I found physicist James McDonald’s “Science in Default” report from 1969. That particular UFO report changed my perspective. It was written the same way we write our scientific papers. This resonated with me as a scientist, and I began to believe that scientific investigation is the only way to understand UAP.

Haqq Misra: I became interested in this subject because I am an astrobiologist and other people have asked me about UFOs. UFOs are not necessarily a subject of astrobiology, because we don’t know what they are. But many people think they are aliens. And I felt a bit silly, being an astrobiologist and having nothing to say.

So I went into Carl Sagan’s files, and I realized that even though he lived decades before me, there are things in his files that we’re talking about now that are related to airborne anomalies seen by pilots.

Ultimately, I realized that for a scientist who wants to figure out what’s going on with this UFO thing, there’s a lot of noise to sift through. There’s a lot of public talk about other topics like crop circles, alien abductions, and paranormal stories that muddy the waters, and the clearer we can be about the specific aerial anomalies we’re talking about, the more we can actually solve the problem. problem .


The opinions of researchers are their own and do not necessarily represent those of their employers.


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Links between paranormal beliefs and cognitive function described by 40 years of research https://dagulfsghost.com/links-between-paranormal-beliefs-and-cognitive-function-described-by-40-years-of-research/ Fri, 06 May 2022 07:46:21 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/links-between-paranormal-beliefs-and-cognitive-function-described-by-40-years-of-research/ In a review of 71 studies that explored the links between belief in paranormal phenomena and cognitive function, most findings align with the hypothesis that these beliefs are associated with cognitive differences or deficits. Charlotte Dean and colleagues from the University of Hertfordshire (UK) present this assessment in the open access journal PLOS ONE. For […]]]>

In a review of 71 studies that explored the links between belief in paranormal phenomena and cognitive function, most findings align with the hypothesis that these beliefs are associated with cognitive differences or deficits. Charlotte Dean and colleagues from the University of Hertfordshire (UK) present this assessment in the open access journal PLOS ONE.

For several decades, researchers have examined potential links between cognitive functioning and belief in paranormal phenomena, such as psychokinesis, hauntings, and clairvoyance. However, approximately 30 years have passed since the last non-systematic review of this literature. To provide up-to-date information on the results and quality of studies on this topic, Dean and colleagues systematically identified and assessed 70 published studies and one unpublished doctoral dissertation produced between 1980 and 2020.

The 71 studies explored a range of cognitive functions, such as reasoning ability, thinking style and memory. Overall, the results align with the hypothesis that beliefs in paranormal phenomena are associated with differences or deficits in cognitive function. For example, a particularly consistent association has been found between paranormal beliefs and an intuitive thinking style.

The review found that most of the 71 studies were of good methodological quality and the quality improved over time; for example, most had clear objectives and appropriate study plans. However, some areas for improvement emerged; for example, many studies lacked discussion of their own methodological limitations, and undergraduate students made up a large proportion of study participants, meaning that the results do not necessarily apply to the general population.

The authors note that no specific profile of cognitive functioning for paranormal believers has emerged from this literature. They suggest that future research could not only address the methodological weaknesses they observed, but also explore the possibility that paranormal beliefs may be associated with a more global difference in cognition, which could help explain why previous studies found links to seemingly disparate types of cognitive knowledge. dysfunction.

“Four decades of research suggests that belief in the paranormal is linked to our degree of cognitive flexibility and fluid intelligence; however, methodological improvements in future research are needed to deepen our understanding of the relationship,” the authors state.

Republished with kind permission from PLOS ONE.


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Odisha’s only TV show based on paranormal research “Mana Ki Namana” starting May 8 on Kalinga TV & KNEWS https://dagulfsghost.com/odishas-only-tv-show-based-on-paranormal-research-mana-ki-namana-starting-may-8-on-kalinga-tv-knews/ Wed, 04 May 2022 15:56:23 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/odishas-only-tv-show-based-on-paranormal-research-mana-ki-namana-starting-may-8-on-kalinga-tv-knews/ Bhubaneshwar: The only season 2 of the TV show “Mana Ki Namana” based on the paranormal research of Odisha will be aired from May 8, 2022 on Kalinga TV and KNews Odisha. The most anticipated TV series will air every first and third Sunday of the month at 8:30 p.m. on Kalinga TV. And ‘Mana […]]]>

Bhubaneshwar: The only season 2 of the TV show “Mana Ki Namana” based on the paranormal research of Odisha will be aired from May 8, 2022 on Kalinga TV and KNews Odisha.

The most anticipated TV series will air every first and third Sunday of the month at 8:30 p.m. on Kalinga TV. And ‘Mana Ki Namana’ will be released on our digital platform KNews Odisha every first and third Sunday at 9:30 p.m.

National award-winning director Himansu Sekhar Khatua conceptualized the show.

Paranormal investigator Deepak (L), anchor and screenwriter Prachi and cameraman Sameer

“Mana Ki Namana” is not just a TV show; rather it is a HELPLINE for your fear and darkness.

After garnering a lot of appreciation in its previous seasons, the unique and research-based paranormal TV show will be back with its final season with new episodes on Odisha’s leading TV channel, Kalinga TV.

The TV series is the first of its kind in India as unlike other paranormal movies and TV shows where a fiction is treated or the anchor recounts a past incident; ‘Mana Ki Namana’ shows live filming at Ground Zero where the crew practically interacts with paranormal entities, which we commonly call ghosts.

Associate Researcher Prakash Puri (R) with Deepak, Prachi

Call to the public

If you think something is still watching you, if you’re still having the same nightmare, or if you feel haunted, just call the team. The ‘Mana Ki Namana’ team is ready to cross the border for you. Let’s join the journey to a new reality.

Anyone wishing to contact the ‘Mana Ki Namana’ team for paranormal investigation at a particular building, house or haunted place can call/message this number. The survey conducted by the ‘Mana Ki Namana’ team is completely free.

‘Mana Ki Namana’ team contact number: 9348536620 (WhatsApp & Call)

Lead Paranormal Investigator of ‘Mana Ki Namana’

Read also : Audio release of Odia film ‘Prasthanam’ held in Bhubaneswar


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Research shows most Americans believe in the paranormal https://dagulfsghost.com/research-shows-most-americans-believe-in-the-paranormal/ Thu, 21 Apr 2022 18:00:00 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/research-shows-most-americans-believe-in-the-paranormal/ New Thinking Allowed says paranormal experiences are normal and relevant ALBUQUERQUE, New Mexico /ACCESSWIRE/April 21, 2022/ A recent survey, conducted in October 2021 by Cinch Home Services, a leading home warranty company, indicates that 83% of American adults say they have experienced paranormal activity in their home. The three main forms of paranormal activity were […]]]>

New Thinking Allowed says paranormal experiences are normal and relevant

ALBUQUERQUE, New Mexico /ACCESSWIRE/April 21, 2022/ A recent survey, conducted in October 2021 by Cinch Home Services, a leading home warranty company, indicates that 83% of American adults say they have experienced paranormal activity in their home. The three main forms of paranormal activity were hearing sounds, turning lights on and off, and hearing voices. This finding is consistent with polls dating back decades. Yet, generally, many experiencers are still reluctant to talk openly about their experiences for fear of being ridiculed, called mentally ill, or even accused of demonic possession.

The accumulating new scientific evidence suggests that many of these experiments should be taken at face value.

The Pentagon released a statement in June 2021 revealing that it had no explanation for 143 “unidentified aerial phenomena”. The evidence for the paranormal and life beyond this world has never been stronger. This conclusion is supported by a report published by the American Psychological Association in 2018, stating that “evidence provides cumulative support for the reality of psi [extrasensory perception and mind-over-matter]which cannot be easily explained.”

Jeffrey Mishlove, Ph.D., host of the New Thinking Allowed YouTube channel, says, “Large segments of the population, when surveyed, report personal experiences of a parapsychological nature. Our academic, scientific and religious institutions have failed to educate the public about 140 years of research into paranormal phenomena.”

Magnify Your Message, Thursday, April 21, 2022, Image from press release

Mishlove says, “Whenever I, or other parapsychologists, appear in public, people always come up to us and ask if they can tell us about their personal experiences. They almost always preface their remarks by stating, ‘I’ve never told anyone before about this.'”

The New Thinking Allowed channel on YouTube is a continuation of the public television series Thinking Allowed, hosted and co-produced by Mishlove, which aired across North America from 1987 to 2002. Since 2015, over 1,600 videos have been released. uploaded to YouTube channel. The channel features guests who are leading figures in philosophy, psychology, health, science, and spirituality, with a healthy focus on parapsychology.

Magnify Your Message, Thursday, April 21, 2022, Image from press release

Magnify Your Message, Thursday, April 21, 2022, Image from press release

Mishlove says, “My hope is to help people realize that their paranormal experiences are normal and relevant – thus helping to eliminate the stigma associated with parapsychology.” He thinks the recent research is encouraging. “The best antidote to fear and ignorance regarding paranormal experiences is public education.”

ABOUT AUTHORIZED NEW THOUGHT

The New Thinking Allowed channel on YouTube is a continuation of the public television series Thinking Allowed, hosted and co-produced by Jeffrey Mishlove, which aired across North America from 1987 to 2002. Since 2015, more than 1,600 videos have been uploaded to the YouTube channel. . Guests include leading researchers and scholars in the fields of near-death experience, reincarnation, psychokinesis and related fields of philosophy, psychology, health, science and Spirituality. Jeffrey Mishlove holds a unique doctorate in “parapsychology” from the University of California in 1980 – and he recently received the $500,000 grand prize in the Bigelow Institute for Consciousness Studies essay competition, which focuses on the best evidence of the survival of consciousness after bodily death. The New Thinking Allowed Foundation aims to continue public education and discussion around paranormal experiences. For more information, visit New Thinking Allowed at Facebook, instagramor Twitter. For more information, visit newthinkingallowed.com.

CONTACT
Jeffrey Mishlove
505-639-4330
jmishlove@newthinkingallowed.com

THE SOURCE: New Thought Allowed

See the source version on accesswire.com:
https://www.accesswire.com/698358/Research-Shows-Most-Americans-Believe-in-the-Paranormal


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Research could enable assembly-line synthesis of drugs containing prevalent amines https://dagulfsghost.com/research-could-enable-assembly-line-synthesis-of-drugs-containing-prevalent-amines/ Fri, 15 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/research-could-enable-assembly-line-synthesis-of-drugs-containing-prevalent-amines/ A research team from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has discovered a way to produce a special class of molecules that could open the door to new drugs to treat currently incurable diseases. Open the medicine cabinet and you’ll likely find organic derivatives of ammonia, called amines. They are one of the most prevalent […]]]>

A research team from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has discovered a way to produce a special class of molecules that could open the door to new drugs to treat currently incurable diseases.

Open the medicine cabinet and you’ll likely find organic derivatives of ammonia, called amines. They are one of the most prevalent structures in drugs today. Over 40% of drugs and drug candidates contain amines, and 60% of these amines are tertiary, so named for the three carbons bonded to a nitrogen.

Tertiary amines are found in some of the most effective human medicines, including antibiotics, breast cancer and leukemia drugs, opioid painkillers, antihistamines, blood thinners, HIV treatments, migraine medications, and more. . They increase the solubility of a drug and can trigger its main biological functions.

Despite the prevalence of this particular class of molecules in drugs today, much of the functional potential of tertiary amines likely remains untapped.

Indeed, their traditional manufacturing process requires specific and controlled conditions that inherently limit the discovery of new tertiary amines, which could potentially treat a wide range of currently incurable diseases.

Now, an Illinois research team led by Lycan Professor of Chemistry M. Christina White and graduate students Siraj Ali, Brenna Budaitis, and Devon Fontaine have discovered a new chemical reaction, a carbon-carbon amination cross-coupling reaction. hydrogen, which creates a faster reacting, easier way to make tertiary amines without the inherent limitations of conventional methods. The researchers think it could also be used to discover new reactions with nitrogen.

This new reaction in the chemist’s toolbox transforms the traditional process for manufacturing tertiary amines – with its classic chemical reactions that require very specific conditions specific to each molecule – into a process that can be carried out under general conditions open to air and to humidity with the potential for automation.

As the researchers describe in their recently published article in Sciencethis new procedure uses a metal catalyst discovered by their group (Ma-WhiteSOX/palladium) and two building blocks – abundant hydrocarbons (olefins containing an adjacent C – H bond) and secondary amines – to generate a variety of tertiary amines .

This has the potential, White explained, for chemists to take lots of different secondary amines and couple them to lots of different olefins, which you can buy or make easily.

“And these are stable feedstocks. You can have them in individual containers, mix and match them, and use our catalyst to create many different combinations of tertiary amines,” White said. “The flexibility of this reaction facilitates the process of tertiary amine drug discovery.”

The difference between classic reactions and this new reaction for making tertiary amines is like the difference between choosing a specialty sandwich from a menu and creating your own sandwich from a diverse set of ingredients – you have much more flexibility in terms of choice.

This very flexible system for manufacturing tertiary amines is also very practical.

“You could, in principle, run it on your stovetop,” says White. “You don’t need to handle it very carefully, you can run it in the open air and you don’t have to exclude water. You just need your raw materials, the palladium catalyst/ SOX and a little heat. It should work just like we do in the lab.”

White explained that when a pharmaceutical company wants to manufacture tertiary amines, they often have to use specialized procedures, but this reaction allows you to take two simple, often commercial, raw materials and put them together using the same procedure.

“Because the conditions are so simple and work for so many different amines and olefins, there is great potential to adopt this reaction for automation,” White said.

The major challenge the team overcame in this discovery was to solve a long-standing problem in the chemistry of C–H functionalization: replacing a hydrogen atom on the carbon structure of a molecule with a secondary amine base to directly manufacture tertiary amines.

Metal catalysts prefer to interact with basic amines rather than CH bonds in the olefin. The team hypothesized that amine salts (easy to use and store amine-BF3 salts) may prevent this interaction with the catalyst.

Like a dam modulating the flow of water, the team’s palladium/SOX catalyst regulates the slow release of amines from the salts and ensures the coupling of the secondary amine and the hydrocarbon to form the tertiary amine product.

Demonstrating the power of this new chemical reaction, the researchers made 81 tertiary amines in their study, coupling a wide range of complex and medically relevant secondary amines to numerous complex olefins containing reactive functionality. This includes functionality that is reactive with secondary amines in traditional tertiary amine manufacturing processes.

Further demonstrating the potential for new drug discovery, the research team also applied this novel reaction to efficient syntheses of 12 existing drug compounds, including Abilify, an antipsychotic drug, Naftin, an antifungal, as well as 11 complex drug derivatives. , including the antidepressants, Paxil and Prozac, and the blood thinner, Plavix.

In addition to this reaction being used in the pharmaceutical industry as a platform to accelerate the discovery of new tertiary amine drugs, the researchers also believe that their catalyst-controlled slow release strategy could be used by others. researchers to discover many additional new reactions with nitrogen.


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International GPCR research collaboration deciphers the structure of active receptors https://dagulfsghost.com/international-gpcr-research-collaboration-deciphers-the-structure-of-active-receptors/ Thu, 14 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/international-gpcr-research-collaboration-deciphers-the-structure-of-active-receptors/ Breathe, see, hear — the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is involved in a variety of physiological processes and is also the cause of various diseases. As a team of scientists led by Professor Ines Liebscher of the University of Leipzig has now discovered, some members of the GPCR family respond to mechanical stimuli. In collaboration […]]]>

Breathe, see, hear — the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is involved in a variety of physiological processes and is also the cause of various diseases. As a team of scientists led by Professor Ines Liebscher of the University of Leipzig has now discovered, some members of the GPCR family respond to mechanical stimuli. In collaboration with Chinese research groups, they have taken a new step in understanding the mechanism by which this class of receptors is activated. For the first time, they were able to describe the structure of specific active receptors. Their findings have just been published in the journal Nature.

“GPCRs are involved in almost every physiological process in the body. GPCRs allow humans to see, to control their immune system, to direct hormonal balance,” explained Professor Ines Liebscher of the Institute of Biochemistry Rudolf Schönheimer of the Faculty of Medicine, emphasizing: “They have been the focus of our research for many years now, and research on GPCRs is of such exceptional importance because the majority of approved drugs target this family of receptors. GPCRs are receptors that transmit their signals via so-called G-proteins, which is why they are also called G-protein-coupled receptors – or GPCRs for short.

The Leipzig researchers are focusing their work on a particular class of receptors, called adhesion GPCRs. Together with several teams of Chinese scientists, the research groups led by Prof. Ines Liebscher and Prof. Torsten Schöneberg have now been able to describe the structure of special receptor molecules in their active state. These data confirm findings seven years ago at the Leipzig institute that these receptors are activated by an agonist attached within the molecule. Furthermore, the Leipzig researchers showed that mechanical stimuli play a crucial role in activation by the tethered agonist. It is still not fully understood how our body’s own cells are able to interpret mechanics – in the form of vibrations, gravitational forces, relative cell movement or swelling – as a signal. “Our research has established the basis for our Chinese partners to structurally elucidate a scenario of how mechanical stimuli are recognized in the molecule and transmitted as signals,” said Liebscher, a medical scientist and biochemist. “The results can be found in the current study.”

Functional nature of mechanosensitive receptors elucidated

“About a third of the GPCR family are still orphans, which means that their function or activation is unknown. With our current research, we have made a decisive contribution to a better understanding of GPCR structures,” said the co-author. Schöneberg, director of the Rudolf Schönheimer Institute of Biochemistry. “The new study findings are of critical importance when it comes to developing future forms of therapy,” Liebscher concluded. She is a member of the steering committee of the EU-funded COST action Adher’n Rise CA18240, which she successfully obtained in 2019. This network of scientists from 28 European countries aims to promote, stimulate and implement adhesion research G. protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR) “from bench to bedside”. The latest findings and approaches to GPCR research on adhesion will also be presented at the international 4GPCRnet conference, of which Prof. Liebscher is a co-organizer. This high-level meeting will take place from 26 to 29 September 2022 at the Augustusplatz campus of the University of Leipzig.

The current research project is part of the Collaborative Research Center 1423 “Structural Dynamics of GPCR Activation and Signaling”, a research network funded by the German Research Foundation, led by the University of Leipzig and also involving Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Charité — Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine. Researchers with backgrounds in biochemistry, biomedicine, and computer science collaborate across the boundaries of their respective institutions and disciplines for a comprehensive understanding of GPCR structure and dynamics.

Source of the story:

Material provided by Leipzig University. Original written by Peggy Darius. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


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Framework for Conducting Ethical Brain Organoid Research — ScienceDaily https://dagulfsghost.com/framework-for-conducting-ethical-brain-organoid-research-sciencedaily/ Tue, 12 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/framework-for-conducting-ethical-brain-organoid-research-sciencedaily/ One of the ways scientists study the growth and aging of the human body is by creating artificial organs in the laboratory. The most popular of these organs is currently the organoid, a miniaturized organ made from stem cells. Organoids have been used to model a variety of organs, but brain organoids are the most […]]]>

One of the ways scientists study the growth and aging of the human body is by creating artificial organs in the laboratory. The most popular of these organs is currently the organoid, a miniaturized organ made from stem cells. Organoids have been used to model a variety of organs, but brain organoids are the most clouded in controversy.

Current brain organoids are different in size and maturity from normal brains. More importantly, they produce no behavioral output, demonstrating that they are still a primitive model of an actual brain. However, as research generates brain organoids of greater complexity, they will eventually have the ability to feel and think. In response to this anticipation, Associate Professor Takuya Niikawa of Kobe University and Assistant Professor Tsutomu Sawai of the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Biology (WPI-ASHBi) at Kyoto University, in collaboration with other philosophers in Japan and Canada, wrote a paper on the ethics of research using conscious brain organoids. The article can be read in the academic journal Neuroethics.

Regularly working with bioethicists and neuroscientists who have created brain organoids, the team has written extensively about the need to develop ethical research guidelines. In the new paper, Niikawa, Sawai and their coauthors present an ethical framework that assumes brain organoids already have consciousness rather than waiting for the day when we can fully confirm that they do.

“We believe a precautionary principle should be applied,” Sawai said. “Neither science nor philosophy can agree that something has consciousness. Instead of discussing whether brain organoids have consciousness, we decided that they do so as a precaution and to consider the moral implications.”

To justify this hypothesis, the article explains what brain organoids are and examines what different theories of consciousness suggest about brain organoids, deducing that some of the popular theories of consciousness allow them to possess consciousness.

Ultimately, the framework proposed by the study recommends that research on human brain organoids should follow similar ethical principles as animal experiments. Recommendations therefore include using the minimum number of organoids possible and doing the maximum to prevent pain and suffering while taking into account the interests of the public and patients.

“Our framework was designed to be simple and is based on valence experiments and the sophistication of those experiments,” Niikawa said.

This, the paper explains, provides guidance on the stringency of experimental conditions. These conditions must be decided based on several criteria, including the physiological state of the organoid, the stimuli to which it responds, the neural structures it possesses, and its cognitive functions.

Moreover, the article argues that this framework is not exclusive to brain organoids. It can be applied to anything perceived to have consciousness, such as fetuses, animals, and even robots.

“Our framework depends on the precautionary principle. Something that we think has no awareness today may, through the development of consciousness studies, turn out to have awareness in the future. We can consider how we should treat these entities based on our ethical framework,” Niikawa and Sawai conclude.

Source of the story:

Material provided by Kyoto University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


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Research helps provide a scientific framework for the use of psilocybin in therapeutic settings https://dagulfsghost.com/research-helps-provide-a-scientific-framework-for-the-use-of-psilocybin-in-therapeutic-settings/ Mon, 11 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/research-helps-provide-a-scientific-framework-for-the-use-of-psilocybin-in-therapeutic-settings/ A new paper from a research team led by Oregon State University provides a scientific framework to help shape the rollout of a program in Oregon that will legally allow the use of psilocybin for therapeutic purposes. Oregon voters approved a ballot measure in 2020 to allow the use of psilocybin, the hallucinogenic compound found […]]]>

A new paper from a research team led by Oregon State University provides a scientific framework to help shape the rollout of a program in Oregon that will legally allow the use of psilocybin for therapeutic purposes.

Oregon voters approved a ballot measure in 2020 to allow the use of psilocybin, the hallucinogenic compound found in some magic mushrooms, in therapeutic settings, becoming the first state to do so. Preliminary data from clinical trials has shown that psilocybin has the potential to treat mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, and PTSD.

The state created an advisory council to recommend how to roll out a safe and fair system for the use of psilocybin. The Oregon Health Authority in February released draft rules developed by the advisory board. They should be finalized next year.

Jessie Uehling, a mycologist at Oregon State University who studies fungi and their applications to benefit humanity, was appointed last year by Governor Kate Brown to the advisory board. His involvement with the board made him aware of the need for the article recently published in the journal Fungal biology.

“There was no summary of all the information about psilocybin that an entity like the advisory board or any other group at the state or federal level would need to make science-informed decisions,” said Uehling, a professor. assistant who has a doctorate in genetics and genomics and a master’s degree in mycology.

She, along with researchers in Mexico and several universities in the United States, set out to change that. The article they just published provides an overview of the biology, diversity, and history of psilocybin-containing mushrooms.

The authors point out that there are hundreds of fungal species belonging to at least seven genera capable of producing psilocybin. Additionally, they discuss the number of psilocybin-producing mushrooms that have deadly poisonous lookalikes growing in similar locations in natural habitats.

They also focus on how Indigenous peoples around the world have historically used the compound for sacred traditions, in part because they say these cross-disciplinary ideas need to be published, cited, and publicly available.

While indirect evidence of magic mushroom rituals dates back thousands of years in North Africa and Spain; its use, for hundreds of years, still persists in Mexico. Rules governing how these mushrooms are used among Mexican indigenous groups have resulted in safe consumption for centuries, the researchers note. These rules include being guided by an elder or shaman, not mixing alcohol, medicine or drugs, and discouraging travel for a week after the ceremony.

“These mushrooms and their traditions constitute a unique biocultural heritage whose use by Western society must be based on their respect and conservation,” said Roberto Garibay-Orijel, researcher at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and co-author of the item.

He said it was important for the document to highlight that mushroom species found only in Mexico and strains from Mexico’s indigenous territories are protected by the Nagoya Protocol, an international agreement that prohibits their use. for commercial purposes without the consent of their ancestral owners. .

Recent Western medical trials on psilocybin have been designed to mirror the guided experience used by Indigenous groups. Trials confirmed the importance of preparation and set-up when using psilocybin-producing mushrooms.

There are currently over 60 clinical trials of psilocybin overseen by the National Institutes of Health. Preliminary data suggest that psilocybin therapies are effective in treating major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, smoking cessation, and alcoholism.

Results of psilocybin ingestion outside of clinical trials have shown increased connection to nature, increased creativity, greater enjoyment of music, and increased positive mood.

Meanwhile, cities across the United States are decriminalizing psilocybin, and Washington is considering a move similar to Oregon’s that would legalize psilocybin for therapeutic purposes.

“Society is having this moment right now where mushrooms are appreciated for being really cool,” Uehling said. “But they’re also very powerful and some can be deadly. So we really need to understand them better through scientific research and make safety our first priority.”

The other co-authors of the article are Ray Van Court, Michele Wiseman and Kevin Amses, Oregon State; Kyle Meyer and Daniel Ballhorn, Portland State University; Jason Slot, Ohio State University; and Bryn Dentinger, University of Utah.

The research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation.


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Activating a DNA repair mechanism may help preserve kidney function in people with chronic kidney disease https://dagulfsghost.com/activating-a-dna-repair-mechanism-may-help-preserve-kidney-function-in-people-with-chronic-kidney-disease/ Mon, 11 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/activating-a-dna-repair-mechanism-may-help-preserve-kidney-function-in-people-with-chronic-kidney-disease/ A compound called SCR7 supports DNA repair to prevent irreparable tissue damage and the progression of chronic kidney disease. To some degree, the kidneys have the ability to repair themselves after being injured, but a shift from such intrinsic repair to incomplete repair that leads to irreversible damage and chronic kidney disease (CKD) can occur. […]]]>

A compound called SCR7 supports DNA repair to prevent irreparable tissue damage and the progression of chronic kidney disease. To some degree, the kidneys have the ability to repair themselves after being injured, but a shift from such intrinsic repair to incomplete repair that leads to irreversible damage and chronic kidney disease (CKD) can occur. A team led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) recently used kidney organoids derived from human stem cells to identify genes that are important for maintaining healthy kidney repair. The conclusions, which are published in Science Translational Medicinemay lead to new targets to help prevent or treat CKD.

Although various factors involved in kidney repair have been identified in animal studies, translating these findings into the clinic has been difficult because many treatments found to be safe and effective in animals have subsequently been found to be toxic or ineffective in trials. clinics. Human kidney organoids, which look like miniature kidneys, may help researchers avoid these setbacks.

“We pioneered work on human kidney organoids and believe they will be useful for therapeutic development in CKD,” says lead author Navin Gupta, MD, researcher in the MGH’s Division of Nephrology. . “As physician-scientists, we wanted to create a new CKD model in human cells to aid in drug development.”

When Gupta and his colleagues exposed human kidney organoids to cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug, which can damage the kidneys, the treatment altered the expression of 159 genes and 29 signaling pathways in kidney cells undergoing intrinsic repair. Many of the genes they identified, including 2 called FANCD2 and Rad51, were activated during intrinsic repair, but their expression fell when kidney damage became irreversible. These genes code for proteins that play a role in repairing DNA when it is damaged in cells. Additional experiments in mouse models of kidney injury and in human kidney biopsies confirmed the findings found in kidney organoids.

Finally, through drug testing, scientists identified a compound known as SCR7 that helped maintain FANCD2 and RAD51 activity to rescue normal tissue repair and prevent CRF progression in the researchers’ cisplatin-induced organoid injury model.

“We have shown that activating a DNA repair mechanism can help maintain healthy kidney status,” says lead author Ryuji Morizane, MD, PhD, senior researcher in the Division of Nephrology at the MGH. “In the future, this approach could become a new treatment option for patients with CKD.”

Other study authors include Takuya Matsumoto, Ken Hiratsuka, Edgar Garcia Saiz, Pierre Galichon, Tomoya Miyoshi, Koichiro Susa, Narihito Tatsumoto, and Michifumi Yamashita.

This work was supported by a National Institutes of Health (NIH) T32 Training Fellowship, a Harvard Stem Cell Institute Interdisciplinary Fellowship, two Brigham and Women’s Hospital Research Excellence Awards, a Cell Science Research Foundation Award, an NCATS UCLA CTSI Fellowship KL2, a Cedars-Sinai CTSI Clinical Scholar Grant, a Brigham and Women’s Hospital Faculty Career Development Award, a Harvard Stem Cell Institute Seed Grant, a DiaComp Pilot & Feasibility Program, an NIH DP2EB029388 award, and an NIH U01EB028899 grant.

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Material provided by Massachusetts General Hospital. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


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Research suggests brain processes feel like both a painting and a symphony https://dagulfsghost.com/research-suggests-brain-processes-feel-like-both-a-painting-and-a-symphony/ Mon, 04 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://dagulfsghost.com/research-suggests-brain-processes-feel-like-both-a-painting-and-a-symphony/ What happens when we smell a rose? How does our brain process the essence of its perfume? Is it like a painting – a snapshot of flickering cell activity – captured at a given moment? Or like a symphony, an evolving set of different cells working together to capture the scent? New research suggests that […]]]>

What happens when we smell a rose? How does our brain process the essence of its perfume? Is it like a painting – a snapshot of flickering cell activity – captured at a given moment? Or like a symphony, an evolving set of different cells working together to capture the scent? New research suggests that our brain does both.

“These findings reveal a fundamental principle of the nervous system, flexibility in the types of calculations the brain performs to represent aspects of the sensory world,” said Krishnan Padmanabhan, Ph.D., associate professor of neuroscience and lead author of the paper. ‘study. recently published in Cell reports. “Our work provides scientists with new tools to quantify and interpret brain activity patterns.”

The researchers developed a model to simulate the workings of the early olfactory system – the network the brain relies on to smell. Using computer simulations, they discovered that a specific set of connections, called centrifugal fibers, which carry impulses from other parts of the central nervous system to the early sensory regions of the brain, played a key role. These centrifugal fibers act as a switch, toggling between different strategies to effectively represent odors. When the centrifugal fibers were in a state, the cells of the piriform cortex – where the perception of an odor is formed – relied on the pattern of activity at a given time. When centrifugal fibers were in the other state, cells in the piriform cortex improved both the accuracy and speed with which the cells detected and classified odor based on patterns of brain activity over time. .

These processes suggest that the brain has multiple responses to the representation of an odor. In one strategy, the brain uses a snapshot, such as a painting or photograph, at a given time to capture essential characteristics of smell. In the other strategy, the brain follows the evolution of patterns. It is suitable for cells that turn on and off and when – like a symphony.

The mathematical models developed by the researchers highlight the essential characteristic of the nervous system – not only the diversity in terms of the components that make up the brain, but also the way in which these components work together to help the brain discover the world of smell. “These mathematical models reveal critical aspects of how the olfactory system works in the brain and could help build brain-inspired artificial computing systems,” Padmanabhan said. “Brain circuit-inspired computational approaches like this have the potential to improve the safety of self-driving cars or help computer vision algorithms more accurately identify and classify objects in an image.”

Other authors include Zhen Chen of the University of Rochester. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Cystinosis Research Foundation and the University of Rochester’s Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience Pilot Program.

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Material provided by University of Rochester Medical Center. Original written by Kelsie Smith Hayduk. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


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